What is an air purifier? Analysis of the principle of air purifier

by:Funglan     2022-05-07

Air purifiers, also known as air cleaners, air purifiers, and purifiers, refer to decorations that can absorb, decompose or convert various air pollutants (generally including PM2.5, dust, pollen, odor, formaldehyde, etc. Pollution, bacteria, allergens, etc.), products that effectively improve air cleanliness are mainly divided into household, commercial, industrial, and building.

There are many different technologies and media in air purifiers that enable it to provide clean and safe air to the user. Commonly used air purification technologies include: adsorption technology, negative (positive) ion technology, catalytic technology, photocatalyst technology, superstructured photomineralization technology, HEPA high-efficiency filtration technology, electrostatic dust collection technology, etc.; material technologies mainly include: photocatalyst, activated carbon, Synthetic fibers, HEAP high-efficiency materials, negative ion generators, etc. Most of the existing air purifiers are composite types, that is, a variety of purification technologies and material media are used at the same time.

Main types

The working principle of air purifiers is mainly divided into three types: passive type, active type, active-passive hybrid type.

According to the air purifier's removal technology for particulate matter in the air, there are mainly mechanical filter type, electrostatic electret filter type, high-voltage electrostatic dust collection, negative ion and plasma method.

Mechanical filtration

Generally, particles are mainly captured in the following four ways: direct interception, inertial collision, Brownian diffusion mechanism, and screening effect. In order to obtain high purification efficiency, the resistance of the filter screen is relatively large, and the filter screen needs to be dense, which reduces the service life and needs to be replaced regularly.

High-voltage electrostatic dust collection

A dust collection method that uses a high-voltage electrostatic field to ionize the gas so that the dust particles are charged and adsorbed on the electrode. Although the wind resistance is small, it is not suitable for larger particles and fibers. The trapping effect is poor, it will cause discharge, and cleaning is troublesome and time-consuming, and it is easy to generate ozone and form secondary pollution.

High-voltage electrostatic dust collection is a method that can not only ensure the air volume but also absorb fine particles. This is the way that the particles are charged with a high voltage before they pass through the filter element, so that the particles are easily adsorbed to the filter element under the action of electricity.

The high-voltage electrostatic dust collection part originally applied a high voltage to the two electrodes, and when the two electrodes were discharged, the passing dust was charged. Most of the dust is originally neutral or weakly charged, so the filter element can only filter dust larger than the mesh. However, narrowing the mesh of the filter element will cause blockage. The high-voltage electrostatic dust collection method can make the dust charged. Under the action of electricity, it is adsorbed on the specially processed and permanently charged filter element. Therefore, even if the mesh of the filter element is too large (coarse), it can indeed capture the dust.

Electrostatic electret filter

Compared with mechanical filtration, it can only effectively remove particles above 10 microns, and when the particle size is removed to 5 microns, 2 microns or even In the sub-micron range, high-efficiency mechanical filtration systems become more expensive and wind resistance increases significantly. Filtered by electrostatic electret air filter material, high capture efficiency can be achieved with low energy consumption, and at the same time, it has the advantages of electrostatic dust removal and low wind resistance, but no external voltage of tens of thousands of volts is required, so no ozone is generated. Its composition is polypropylene material, which is very convenient for disposal.

Electrostatic precipitator

It can filter dust, smoke and bacteria smaller than cells, preventing lung disease, lung cancer, liver cancer and other diseases. The most harmful to the human body in the air is the dust smaller than 2.5 microns, because it can penetrate the cells and enter the blood. Ordinary purifiers use filter paper to filter the dust in the air, which is easy to block the filter holes. The dust not only has no sterilization effect, but also easily causes secondary pollution.

Electrostatic sterilization

Using a high-voltage electrostatic field of about 6000 volts, it can instantly and completely kill bacteria and viruses attached to dust, preventing colds, infectious diseases and other diseases. Its sterilization mechanism is to destroy the four polypeptide chains of the bacterial capsid protein and damage the RNA.


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